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Mechanisms affecting the dynamic response of swirled flames in gas turbines

Hermeth, Sebastian. Mechanisms affecting the dynamic response of swirled flames in gas turbines. PhD, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2012

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Official URL: http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00001975/

Abstract

Modern pollutant regulation have led to a trend towards lean combustion systems which are prone to thermo-acoustic instabilities. The ability of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to handle complex industrial heavy-duty gas turbines is evidenced during this thesis work. First, LES is applied to an academic single burner in order to validate the modeling against measurements performed at TU Berlin and against OpenFoam LES simulations done at Siemens. The coupling between acoustic and combustion is modeled with the Flame Transfer Function (FTF) approach and swirl number fluctuations are identified changing the FTF amplitude response of the flame. Then, an industrial gas turbine is analyzed for two different burner geometries and operating conditions. The FTF is only slightly influenced for the two operating points but slight modifications of the swirler geometry do modify the characteristics of the FTF showing that a simple model taking only into account the flight time is not appropriate and additional mechanisms are at play. Those mechanisms are identified being the inlet velocity, the swirl and the inlet mixture fraction fluctuations. The latter is caused by two mechanisms: 1) the pulsating injected fuel flow rate and 2) the fluctuating trajectory of the fuel jets. Although the diagonal swirler is designed to provide good mixing, effects of mixing heterogeneities at the combustion chamber inlet occur. Mixture perturbations phase with velocity (and hence with swirl) fluctuations and combine with them to lead to different FTF results. Another FTF approach linking heat release to inlet velocity and mixture fraction fluctuation (MISO model) shows further to be a good solution for complex systems. A nonlinear analysis shows that the forcing amplitude not only leads to a saturation of the flame but also to changes of the delay response. Flame saturation is only true for the global FTF and the gain increases locally with increasing forcing amplitude. Both, the linear and the nonlinear flames, are not compact: flame regions located right next to each other exhibited significant differences in delay meaning that at the same instant certain parts of the flame damp the excitation while others feed it.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
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Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT (FRANCE)
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Research Director:
Gicquel, Laurent and Staffelbach, Gabriel
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Deposited On:05 Feb 2013 22:58

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