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Self-supported binder-free hard carbon electrodes for sodium-ion batteries: insights into their sodium storage mechanisms

Beda, Adrian and Villevieille, Claire and Taberna, Pierre-Louis and Simon, Patrice and Matei Ghimbeu, Camelia Self-supported binder-free hard carbon electrodes for sodium-ion batteries: insights into their sodium storage mechanisms. (2020) Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, 8 (11). 5558-5571. ISSN 2050-7488

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TA13189B

Abstract

Hard carbons are one of the most promising negative electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries (NIBs). In contrast to most of the published works employing powder-like electrodes containing binders, additives and solvents, we report herein an innovative way to prepare binder-free electrodes by simple impregnation of cellulose and cotton filter papers with a phenolic resin solution. The latter enables improvement of the poor mechanical properties and thermal stability observed for pristine hard carbon self-standing electrodes (SSEs) along with the carbon yield. A high reversible specific capacity and long-term stability were observed for cellulose compared to those of cotton-based SSEs in NIBs, i.e., 240 mAh·g-1 vs. 140 mAh·g-1, respectively, for C/10 rate and high mass loading (~5.2 mg·cm-2). This could be ascribed to the larger amount of defects on cellulose than cotton as quantified by temperature programmed desorption coupled with mass-spectrometry (TPD-MS), the structure and porosity being similar for both materials. Furthermore, the addition of a conductive sputter coating on the cellulose SSE surface improved the reversible specific capacity (to ~300 mAh·g-1) and initial coulombic efficiency (ICE) (to 85%). Operando X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed to provide additional insights on the Na storage mechanisms. Although no shift was noticed for the graphite (002) diffraction peak, clear evidence of sodium intercalation was observed in the plateau region appearance of a new diffraction peak (~28.0° 2θ) likely associated with a sodium intercalation compound. Consequently, the sloping region could be related to the Na+ adsorption on hard carbon defects and pores.

Item Type:Article
Audience (journal):International peer-reviewed journal
Uncontrolled Keywords:
Institution:French research institutions > Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS (FRANCE)
Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - Toulouse INP (FRANCE)
Other partners > Université Grenoble Alpes - UGA (FRANCE)
Other partners > Université de Strasbourg - UNISTRA (FRANCE)
Université de Toulouse > Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - UT3 (FRANCE)
Other partners > Université de Haute Alsace - UHA (FRANCE)
Other partners > Université de Savoie Mont Blanc - USMB (FRANCE)
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Deposited On:08 Jan 2021 12:34

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