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Production of biopolymers and synthons from lignocellulosic wastes

Oriez, Vincent. Production of biopolymers and synthons from lignocellulosic wastes. PhD, Sciences des Agroressources, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2019

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Abstract

Agricultural and forestry residues, also known as lignocellulosic residues, have a unique potential based on their quantity and structure for the production of renewable energy and molecules, inorder to solve the issues raised by the increasing scarcity of fossil hydrocarbons and the environmental disorder caused by their use. Lignocellulosic biomasses are essentially made ofcellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Fractionation and purification of these three compounds are necessary for their valorization as substitutes of fossil hydrocarbons. In the first place, this studydescribed the chemical fractionation of lignocellulose under acidic and alkaline conditions, and their related purification pathways. The experimental work was carried out on two raw materials:sugarcane bagasse and sunflower oil cake. A thorough characterization of the raw materials as well as the acid and alkaline extracts produced from these materials was performed. The purification steps focused on the sugarcane bagasse mild alkaline extract. Indeed, sugarcane bagasse can be considered a model lignocellulosic biomass and the purification of lignocellulosicmild alkaline extract has not been widely studied despite the numerous assets of this fractionation process. Membrane filtration and elution chromatography on strong acid cationic exchange resins were assessed individually then combined, for the separation of the five main pools of molecules that constitute the extract: lignin oligomers, sugar oligomers, phenolic monomers, acetic acid and inorganic salts. Ultrafiltration trials run on several membranes under various filtration conditions showed that lignin and sugar oligomers, recovered in the retentate, were separated from phenolicmonomers, acetic acid and inorganic salts, recovered in the permeate. A hollow fiber membrane of 10 kDa in polysulfone exhibited the best separation performance and was selected for further trials in concentration and diafiltration modes. Elution chromatography tests using water as eluent and various strong acid cationic exchange resins resulted in the production of a very pure lignin andsugar oligomers fraction with a macroporous-type resin, whereas a gel-type resin led to the separation of phenolic monomers from each other depending on the presence or absence in their structure of a carboxyl group. From a sugarcane bagasse mild alkaline extract, an integrated purification process was developed combining membrane filtration then chromatography on the permeate and precipitation by acid addition on the retentate. It resulted in the production of four purified fractions: phenolic monomers with a carboxyl group, inorganic salts and phenolicmonomers without carboxyl group, lignin oligomers, and sugar oligomers

Item Type:PhD Thesis
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Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - Toulouse INP (FRANCE)
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Research Director:
Pontalier, Pierre-Yves and Peydecastaing, Jérôme
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Deposited On:22 Jan 2020 10:09

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