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Patulin, main mycotoxin of the apple industry : regulation of its biosynthetic pathway and influence of processing factors in cloudy apple juice production

El Hajj Assaf, Christelle. Patulin, main mycotoxin of the apple industry : regulation of its biosynthetic pathway and influence of processing factors in cloudy apple juice production. PhD, Pathologie, Toxicologie, Génétique et Nutrition, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2018

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Abstract

Among diseases affecting apples, blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum is a major concern. It causes yield and quality losses, as well as food safety issues due to the production of mycotoxins such as patulin (PAT) and citrinin (CIT). PAT is the most worrying one and has cytotoxic, genotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. The European Union (EU) has established specific regulations to protect the consumer’s health and maximum levels of PAT of 5 g/kg is set for fruit juices and derived products, 25 g/kg for apple purees and compotes and 10g/kg for food intended for babies and young children. However, PAT is still found in commercial food and/or beverage products, sometimes exceeding the maximum limits and more research is needed to minimize contamination of food products by this mycotoxin and its fungus. Even though most studies on P. expansum have focused on PAT itself, the genome of this fungus exhibits other predicted secondary metabolite (SM) clusters, some of which may be associated with potentially toxic metabolites. In order to control the synthesis of SMs, the study of global transcription factors regulating their production is essential. In a first part, the veA gene, belonging to the velvet family, was characterised and its impact on the development of the fungus, its virulence and its secondary metabolism was elucidated. The disruption of this gene led to the failure in PAT and CIT production and a decrease in the expression of their gene cluster. It also revealed a global impact on the secondary metabolism, as 15 of 35 backbone genes showed differential regulation on the media tested. In a second part, the influence of ascorbic acid (AA) on the concentration of PAT in cloudy apple juice was studied on both lab and semi-industrial scale. An analytical methodology separating PAT and other compounds generated during the reaction was optimized. Optimal conditions of action of AA on PAT were studied. In addition, degradation products less toxic than PAT and resulting from AA treatment were identified. To conclude, this thesis is part of the risk management of PAT in the fruit sector; it provides significant improvements at both fundamental and practical levels. These advances are mainly characterized by the description of a mutated strain of P. expansum that is less toxic than that naturally occurring in nature, and the description of a food additive that improves numerous products qualities and affects PAT concentration, thusgenerating less toxic compounds

Item Type:PhD Thesis
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Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - Toulouse INP (FRANCE)
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Research Director:
Puel, Olivier and Van Pamel, Els
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Deposited On:06 Jan 2020 13:49

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