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3D wind vectors measurement with remotely piloted aircraft system for aerosol-cloud interaction study

Calmer, Radiance. 3D wind vectors measurement with remotely piloted aircraft system for aerosol-cloud interaction study. PhD, Océan, atmosphère, climat, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2018

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The European project BACCHUS (impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) focuses on aerosol-cloud interactions. Vertical wind velocities near cloud base, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra, are the two most important input parameters for aerosol-cloud parcel models in determining cloud microphysical and optical properties. Therefore, the present study focuses on the instrumental development for vertical wind measurements to improve aerosol-cloud closure studies. Enhancements in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) have demonstrated their potential as tools in atmospheric research to study the boundary layer dynamics, aerosols and clouds. However, as a relatively new tool for atmospheric research, RPA require instrumental development and validation to address current observational needs. A 5-hole probe is implemented on a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) platform, with an inertial navigation system (INS) to obtain atmospheric wind vectors. The 5- hole probe is first calibrated in a wind tunnel (at Météo-France, Toulouse, France), and an error analysis is conducted on the vertical wind measurement. Atmospheric wind vectors obtained from RPA flights are compared with wind vectors determined from sonic anemometers located at different levels on a 60 m meteorological mast (Centre de Recherches Atmosphériques, Lannemezan, France). Good agreements between vertical wind velocity probability density functions are obtained. The power spectral density of the three wind components follow the -5/3 line for the established regime of turbulence (Kolmogorov law). Turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) values calculated from the RPA are somewhat higher than TKE compared to the sonic anemometer; however, the results agree with those reported in other experiments that compare RPA platforms and sonic anemometers (Lampert et al. (2016), Båserud et al. (2016)). As the RPA equipped with a 5-hole probe (defined as the ``wind-RPA'') is developed for aerosol-cloud observations, updraft velocities near cloud base are compared with cloud radar data during a BACCHUS field campaign (Mace Head Research Station, Ireland). Three case studies illustrate the similarity of in-cloud updrafts measured between the wind-RPA and the cloud radar. A good agreement between vertical velocities of both instruments over a range of different meteorological conditions is found. Updraft velocity measurements from the wind-RPA are implemented in the aerosol-cloud parcel model to conduct a closure study for stratocumulus case with convection sampled during a BACCHUS field campaign in Cyprus. Aerosol size distributions and CCN were measured at a ground-site, which served as input to the aerosol-cloud parcel model along with the updraft velocities at cloud base measured by the RPA. In addition, the RPA conducted a vertical profile through the cloud layer and measured the shortwave transmission of solar irradiance during the ascent. The aerosol-cloud parcel model also shows that entrainment has a greater impact on cloud optical properties than variability in updraft velocity and aerosol particle concentration. Results of the case study for the Cyprus field experiment are consistent with results for similar closure studies conducted during the Mace Head field campaign (Sanchez et al., 2017), and reinforce the significance of including entrainment processes in cloud models to reduce uncertainties in aerosol-cloud interactions.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords:
Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - Toulouse INP (FRANCE)
Laboratory name:
Research Director:
Roberts, Gregory
Deposited On:27 Aug 2018 07:21

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