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Water use efficiency in sunflower. Ecophysiological and genetic approaches

Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif. Water use efficiency in sunflower. Ecophysiological and genetic approaches. PhD, Agrosystèmes, Ecosystèmes et Environnement, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2014

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Water use efficiency (WUE), measured as the ratio of plant biomass to water consumption, is an essential agronomical trait for enhancing crop production under drought. Measuring water consumption is logistically difficult, especially in field conditions. The general objective of the present Thesis is to respond to three main questions: (i) can WUE be determined by using carbon isotope discrimination (CID), easy to measure?, (ii) how WUE and CID variation analysis can contribute to the genotypic selection of sunflower subjected to drought?, and (iii) can WUE variation be revealed by the variation of plant-water relation traits. Four experiments were carried out in greenhouse across two different years: (i) on two drought scenarios, progressive soil drying and stable water-stress, and (ii) on five levels of soil water content. The main traits that have been measured include WUE, CID, as well as plant-water relation traits, i.e. control of transpiration (FTSWt), water extraction capacity (TTSW), and dehydration tolerance (OA). A highly significant negative correlation was observed between WUE and CID, and a wide phenotypic variability was observed for both WUE and CID. A wide variability was also observed for FTSWt, TTSW and OA. The results provide new insight into the genetic control of WUE and CID related-traits, which, unlike to other crops, genetic control of WUE, CID, and TTSW in sunflower have never been reported in the literature. Further, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for FTSWt was never reported in any plant species. The QTL for WUE and CID were identified across different drought scenarios. The QTL for CID is considered as a ‘‘constitutive’’ QTL, because it is consistently detected across different drought scenarios. The QTL for CID co-localized with the QTL for WUE, biomass and cumulative water transpired. Co-localization was also observed between the QTL for FTSWt and TTSW, between the QTL for TTSW and WUE-CID-biomass, as well as between the QTL for FTSWt-TTSW and biomass. This study highlights that WUE is physiologically and genetically associated with CID. CID is an excellent surrogate for WUE measurement, and can be used to improve WUE by using marker-assisted selection (MAS) to achieve the ultimate goal of plant breeding at genomic level.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords:
Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - Toulouse INP (FRANCE)
Laboratory name:
Research Director:
Grieu, Philippe and Lamaze, Thierry
Deposited On:18 Jun 2018 13:55

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