JimenezGonzalez, José Ignacio and Brancher, Pierre Transient energy growth of optimal streaks in parallel round jets. (2017) Physics of Fluids, 29 (11). 11410/1111410/16. ISSN 10706631

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4986150
Abstract
We present a linear optimal perturbation analysis of streamwise invariant disturbances evolving in parallel round jets. The potential for transient energy growth of perturbations with azimuthal wavenumber $m\geq1$ is analyzed for different values of Reynolds number $\Rey$. Two families of steady (frozen) and unsteady (diffusing) base flow velocity profiles have been used, for different aspect ratios $\alpha=R/\theta$, where $R$ is the jet radius and $\theta$ the shear layer momentum thickness. Optimal initial conditions correspond to infinitesimal streamwise vortices, which evolve transiently to produce axial velocity streaks, whose spatial structure and intensity depend on base flow and perturbation parameters. Their dynamics can be characterized by a maximum optimal value of the energy gain $G_{opt}$, reached at an optimal time $\tau_{opt}$ after which the perturbations eventually decays. Optimal energy gain and time are shown to be respectively proportional to $\Rey^2$ and $\Rey$, regardless of the frozen or diffusing nature of the base flow. Besides, it is found that the optimal gain scales like $G_{opt}\propto 1/m^3$ for all $m$ except $m=1$. This quantitative difference for azimuthal wavenumber $m=1$ is shown to be based on the nature of transient mechanisms. For $m = 1$ perturbations, the shiftup effect\cite{Jimenez15} is active: an initial streamwise vorticity dipole induces a nearly uniform velocity flow in the jet core, which shifts the whole jet radially. By contrast, optimal perturbations with $m\geq2$, are concentrated along the shear layer, in a way that resembles the classical liftup mechanism in wallshear flows. The $m=1$ shiftup effect is more energetic than the $m\geq2$ liftup, but it is slower, with optimal times considerably shorter in the case of $m\geq2$ disturbances. This suggests that these perturbations may emerge very quickly in the flow when injected as initial conditions. When the base flow diffuses, the large timescale for $m=1$ disturbances allows the shear layer to spread and the jet core velocity to decrease substantially, thus lowering the values of corresponding optimal gain and time. For $m\geq2$, results are less affected, since the shorter transient dynamics does not leave room for significant modifications of the base flow velocity profiles, and the scaling laws obtained in the frozen case are recovered. Nevertheless, base flow diffusion hinders the transient growth, as a consequence of a weaker componentwise nonnormality and a smoother, radially spread structure of optimal disturbances.
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Additional Information:  Thanks to American Institute of Physics editor. The original PDF of the article can be found at https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4986150 
HAL Id:  hal01727270 
Audience (journal):  International peerreviewed journal 
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Institution:  French research institutions > Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique  CNRS (FRANCE) Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse  Toulouse INP (FRANCE) Université de Toulouse > Université Toulouse III  Paul Sabatier  UT3 (FRANCE) Other partners > Universidad de Jaén  UJA (SPAIN) 
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Deposited On:  09 Mar 2018 08:08 
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