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Worst-case delay analysis of core-to-IO flows over many-cores architectures

Abdallah, Laure. Worst-case delay analysis of core-to-IO flows over many-cores architectures. PhD, Réseaux, Télécommunications, Systèmes et Architecture, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2017

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Many-core architectures are more promising hardware to design real-time systems than multi-core systems as they should enable an easier mastered integration of a higher number of applications, potentially of different level of criticalities. In embedded real-time systems, these architectures will be integrated within backbone Ethernet networks, as they mostly provide Ethernet controllers as Input/Output(I/O) interfaces. Thus, a number of applications of different level of criticalities could be allocated on the Network-on-Chip (NoC) and required to communicate with sensors and actuators. However, the worst-case behavior of NoC for both inter-core and core-to-I/O communications must be established. Several NoCs targeting hard real-time systems, made of specific hardware extensions, have been designed. However, none of these extensions are currently available in commercially available NoC-based many-core architectures, that instead rely on wormhole switching with round-robin arbitration. Using this switching strategy, interference patterns can occur between direct and indirect flows on many-cores. Besides, the mapping over the NoC of both critical and non-critical applications has an impact on the network contention these core-to-I/O communications exhibit. These core-to-I/O flows (coming from the Ethernet interface of the NoC) cross two networks of different speeds: NoC and Ethernet. On the NoC, the size of allowed packets is much smaller than the size of Ethernet frames. Thus, once an Ethernet frame is transmitted over the NoC, it will be divided into many packets. When all the data corresponding to this frame are received by the DDR-SDRAM memory on the NoC, the frame is removed from the buffer of the Ethernet interface. In addition, the congestion on the NoC, due to wormhole switching, can delay these flows. Besides, the buffer in the Ethernet interface has a limited capacity. Then, this behavior may lead to a problem of dropping Ethernet frames. The idea is therefore to analyze the worst case transmission delays on the NoC and reduce the delays of the core-to-I/O flows. In this thesis, we show that the pessimism of the existing Worst-Case Traversal Time (WCTT) computing methods and the existing mapping strategies lead to drop Ethernet frames due to an internal congestion in the NoC. Thus, we demonstrate properties of such NoC-based wormhole networks to reduce the pessimism when modeling flows in contentions. Then, we propose a mapping strategy that minimizes the contention of core-to-I/O flows in order to solve this problem. We show that the WCTT values can be reduced up to 50% compared to current state-of-the-art real-time packet schedulability analysis. These results are due to the modeling of the real impact of the flows in contention in our proposed computing method. Besides, experimental results on real avionics applications show significant improvements of core-to-I/O flows transmission delays, up to 94%, without significantly impacting transmission delays of core-to-core flows. These improvements are due to our mapping strategy that allocates the applications in such a way to reduce the impact of non-critical flows on critical flows. These reductions on the WCTT of the core-to-I/O flows avoid the drop of Ethernet frames.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords:
Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - Toulouse INP (FRANCE)
Laboratory name:
Research Director:
Fraboul, Christian and Jan, Mathieu
Deposited On:23 May 2017 14:02

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