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Modulation of fungal toxin production by natural extracts

Caceres rueda de leon, Isaura del carmen. Modulation of fungal toxin production by natural extracts. PhD, Pathologie, Toxicologie, Génétique et Nutrition, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2016

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Abstract

Mycotoxin’s contamination represents an important source of food spoilage that has to be taken in consideration. For years pesticides, have been used as a common strategy to combat mycotoxin contamination. However, such products were also demonstrated to be harmful to humans and animals’ health. Therefore, it is necessary to find new strategies in order to avoid mycotoxin contamination and the use of natural products could be a promising alternative. Indeed, these compounds may be eco-friendly and several of them are demonstrated aseffective agents against toxin production. Nevertheless, their precise mechanism of action is poorly documented. One of the principal aim of this work consisted in the identification of natural sources capable to inhibit mycotoxin production and in the elucidation of their molecular mechanism of action. For that, we developed a molecular tool aiming the analysis of the impact of natural extracts on the expression of several genes related to Aflatoxin B1 synthesis in Aspergillus flavus. The study of this mycotoxin is an important issue since it is one of the most dangerous compounds inducing cancer in humans and animals. Taking advantage of the well-studied genome of Aspergillus flavus and considering that AFB1 production involves a great number of genetic elements, a q-PCR approach including 60 of the principal genes involved in toxin biosynthesis was developed. This tool simultaneously studies the entire AFB1 gene cluster but also 33 regulatory factors coding for external stimuli to which fungus is exposed. Using this molecular approach, the study of already known but also, new sources of anti-aflatoxigenic compounds was performed. The molecular mechanism of action of 2 isolated molecules and 3 whole plant extracts were determined and the impact of these compounds on the genes involved in AFB1 production was analysed. One of the innovative findings consisted in the demonstration that natural products systematically modulate several genes within AFB1’s inhibition. Taken together, our approach demonstrated that the use of natural products against mycotoxin production can represent an alternative strategy to inhibit food contamination. The elucidation of the mechanism of action of natural products allowed a better understanding of the fungal machinery through which toxin can be inhibited.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords:
Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - Toulouse INP (FRANCE)
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Research Director:
Bailly, Jean-Denis
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Deposited On:17 Mar 2017 13:22

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