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Identification des membres de la famille de gènes codant pour les ARF chez la tomate et décryptage du rôle central du gène Sl-ARF8 dans le mécanisme contrôlant la formation des fruits et la parthénocarpie

Fu, Yongyao. Identification des membres de la famille de gènes codant pour les ARF chez la tomate et décryptage du rôle central du gène Sl-ARF8 dans le mécanisme contrôlant la formation des fruits et la parthénocarpie. PhD, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2013

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Official URL: http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00002535/

Abstract

The making of a fleshy fruit is a developmental process involving three main stages known as (i) fruit set, (ii) fruit growth and (ii) fruit ripening each corresponding to a transition step associated with major physiological and structural changes. Among other hormones, auxin is known to play a dynamic role in triggering and coordinating the changes associated with the process of fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin responses are mediated at the transcriptional level by Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) which regulate early auxin-responsive genes by specific binding to TGTCTC Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs). ARFs are therefore good candidates for being among the components of the molecular mechanism by which auxin mediates the fruit set. In the present study, a total of 22 Sl-ARF genes have been isolated and characterized in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a model plant for the study of fleshy fruit development and ripening. Expression profiling revealed distinctive patterns for Sl-ARF genes in different tomato tissues. Hormone treatment indicated that Sl-ARFs can be regulated both by auxin and ethylene with Sl-ARF2B, 5 and 9 likely to be involved in the cross-talk between the two hormones. Transient expression using a single cell system uncovered the ability of Sl- ARFs to act either as transcriptional activator or repressor in regulating the expression of auxin-responsive genes. Genome-wide expression profiling performed by deep RNASequencing revealed for the first time the importance of the alternative splicing mode of regulation of ARF genes during tomato fruit set. The physiological significance of two closely related Sl-ARFs, Sl-ARF8A and Sl-ARF8B, was addressed in the present study via a reverse genetics approach providing new insight on the molecular events underlying tomato fruit set. Fusion to GFP reporter gene indicated that both Sl-ARF8A/B proteins are nuclear localized. Expression analysis by RT-qPCR revealed some distinctive features between Sl-ARF8A and Sl-ARF8B with a notable increase in Sl-ARF8A transcript upon flower pollination. Over-expression of Sl-ARF8A/B in tomato resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes, including dwarf plants, altered root and lateral shoot development and parthenocarpic fruits (seedless). Histological analysis revealed altered placenta and ovules development in SlARF8A-OX flowers and RNA-Seq profiling identified over 2632 differentially expressed (DE) genes in SlARF8A-OX flower buds compared to wild type control plants. Considering the dramatic change in gene expression of genes related to auxin, jasmonate and ethylene displayed in SlARF8A-OX lines, these phytohormones are likely to play an active role in coordinating the fruit set process. Altogether, the present - 6 - study provided a comphensive description of the tomato ARF gene family and a functional characterization of Sl-ARF8 defining this ARF member as a central figure of the control mechanism of the fruit set process.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
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Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - Toulouse INP (FRANCE)
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Research Director:
Bouzayen, Mondher and Zouine, Mohamed
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Deposited On:24 Feb 2014 22:58

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