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Nonlinear unmixing of Hyperspectral images

Altmann, Yoann. Nonlinear unmixing of Hyperspectral images. PhD, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2013

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Official URL: http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00002593/

Abstract

Spectral unmixing is one the major issues arising when analyzing hyperspectral images. It consists of identifying the macroscopic materials present in a hyperspectral image and quantifying the proportions of these materials in the image pixels. Most unmixing techniques rely on a linear mixing model which is often considered as a first approximation of the actual mixtures. However, the linear model can be inaccurate for some specific images (for instance images of scenes involving multiple reflections) and more complex nonlinear models must then be considered to analyze such images. The aim of this thesis is to study new nonlinear mixing models and to propose associated algorithms to analyze hyperspectral images. First, a ost-nonlinear model is investigated and efficient unmixing algorithms based on this model are proposed. The prior knowledge about the components present in the observed image, their proportions and the nonlinearity parameters is considered using Bayesian inference. The second model considered in this work is based on the approximation of the nonlinear manifold which contains the observed pixels using Gaussian processes. The proposed algorithm estimates the relation between the observations and the unknown material proportions without explicit dependency on the material spectral signatures, which are estimated subsequentially. Considering nonlinear effects in hyperspectral images usually requires more complex unmixing strategies than those assuming linear mixtures. Since the linear mixing model is often sufficient to approximate accurately most actual mixtures, it is interesting to detect pixels or regions where the linear model is accurate. This nonlinearity detection can be applied as a pre-processing step and nonlinear unmixing strategies can then be applied only to pixels requiring the use of nonlinear models. The last part of this thesis focuses on new nonlinearity detectors based on linear and nonlinear models to identify pixels or regions where nonlinear effects occur in hyperspectral images. The proposed nonlinear unmixing algorithms improve the characterization of hyperspectral images compared to methods based on a linear model. These methods allow the reconstruction errors to be reduced. Moreover, these methods provide better spectral signature and abundance estimates when the observed pixels result from nonlinear mixtures. The simulation results conducted on synthetic and real images illustrate the advantage of using nonlinearity detectors for hyperspectral image analysis. In particular, the proposed detectors can identify components which are present in few pixels (and hardly distinguishable) and locate areas where significant nonlinear effects occur (shadow, relief, ...). Moreover, it is shown that considering spatial correlation in hyperspectral images can improve the performance of nonlinear unmixing and nonlinearity detection algorithms.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords:
Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - Toulouse INP (FRANCE)
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Research Director:
Tourneret, Jean-Yves
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Deposited On:19 Dec 2013 22:58

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