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Integrity monitoring applied to the reception of GNSS signals in urban environments

Salos Andrés, Carlos Daniel. Integrity monitoring applied to the reception of GNSS signals in urban environments. PhD, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2012

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Official URL: http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00001939/

Abstract

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) integrity is defined as a measure of the trust that can be placed in the correctness of the information supplied by the navigation system. Although the concept of GNSS integrity has been originally developed in the civil aviation framework as part of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) requirements for using GNSS in the Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance / Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) system, a wide range of non-aviation applications need reliable GNSS navigation with integrity, many of them in urban environments. GNSS integrity monitoring is a key component in Safety of Life (SoL) applications such as aviation, and in the so-called liability critical applications like GNSS-based electronic toll collection, in which positioning errors may have negative legal or economic consequences. At present, GPS integrity monitoring relies on different augmentation systems (GBAS, SBAS, ABAS) that have been conceived to meet the ICAO requirements in civil aviation operations. For this reason, the use of integrity monitoring techniques and systems inherited from civil aviation in non-aviation applications needs to be analyzed, especially in urban environments, which are frequently more challenging than typical aviation environments. Each application has its own requirements and constraints, so the most suitable integrity monitoring technique varies from one application to another. This work focuses on Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) systems based on GNSS in urban environments. Satellite navigation is one of the technologies the directive 2004/52/EC recommends for the European Electronic Toll Service (EETS), and it is already being adopted: toll systems for freight transport that use GPS as primary technology are operational in Germany and Slovakia, and France envisages to establish a similar system from 2013. This dissertation begins presenting first the concept of integrity in civil aviation in order to understand the objectives and constraints of existing GNSS integrity monitoring systems. A thorough analysis of GNSS-based ETC systems and of GNSS navigation in urban environments is done afterwards with the aim of identifying the most suitable road toll schemes, GNSS receiver configurations and integrity monitoring mechanisms. Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) is chosen among other integrity monitoring systems due to its design flexibility and adaptability to urban environments. A nominal pseudorange measurement model suitable for integrity-driven applications in urban environments has been calculated dividing the total pseudorange error into five independent error sources which can be modelled independently: broadcasted satellite clock corrections and ephemeris errors, ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay, receiver thermal noise (plus interferences) and multipath. In this work the fault model that includes all non-nominal errors consists only of major service failures. Afterwards, the GNSS integrity requirements are derived from the relationship between positioning failures and toll charging errors. Two RAIM algorithms are studied. The first of them is the Weighted Least Squares Residual (WLSR) RAIM, widely used in civil aviation and usually set as the reference against which other RAIM techniques are compared. One of the main challenges of RAIM algorithms in urban environments is the high unavailability rate because of the bad user/satellite geometry. For this reason a new RAIM based on the WLSR is proposed, with the objective of providing a trade-off between the false alarm probability and the RAIM availability in order to maximize the probability that the RAIM declares valid a fault-free position. Finally, simulations have been carried out to study the performance of the different RAIM and ETC systems in rural and urban environments. In all cases, the availability obtained with the novel RAIM improve those of the standard WLSR RAIM.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
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Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT (FRANCE)
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Research Director:
Macabiau, Christophe and Martineau, Anaïs
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Deposited On:07 Mar 2013 22:57

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