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Physiological and genetic analysis to improve quality and quantity of sunflower seed oil under drought stress

Haddadi, Parham. Physiological and genetic analysis to improve quality and quantity of sunflower seed oil under drought stress. PhD, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2010

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Official URL: http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00001317/

Abstract

The genetic control of tocopherol, phytosterol, percentage of seed protein, oil and fatty acids content in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower under various conditions are studied through QTL analysis using genetic-linkage map based on SSR markers and introducing some important tocopherol and phytosterol pathway-related genes, enzymatic antioxidant-related genes, droughtresponsive family genes and Arabidopsis SEC14 homologue genes. Three important candidate genes (HPPD, VTE2 and VTE4), which encode enzymes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis, are mapped to linkage group 8(LG8) and LG14. One of the most important candidate genes coding for sterol methyltransferase II (SMT2) enzyme is anchored to LG17 by CAPS marker. Four SNPs are identified for PAT2, Arabidopsis Sec14 homologue gene, between two parents (PAC2 and RHA266). PAT2 is assigned to LG2 by CAPS marker. Squalene epoxidase (SQE1) is also assigned to LG15 by InDel marker. Through other candidate genes, POD, CAT and GST encoding enzymatic antioxidants are assigned to LG17, LG8 and LG1, respectively. The major QTL for total tocopherol content on linkage group 8 accounted for 59.5% of the phenotypic variation (6.TTC.8), which is overlapped with the QTL of total phytosterol content (7.TPC.8). Under late-sowing condition, a specific QTL of palmitic acid content on linkage group 6 (PAC-LS.6) is located between ORS1233 and SSL66_1 markers. Common chromosomic regions are observed for percentage of seed oil and stearic acid content on linkage group 10 (PSO-PI.10 and SACWI. 10) and 15 (PSO-PI.15 and SAC-LS.15). Overlapping occurs for QTLs of oleic and linoleic acids content on linkage groups 10, 11 and 16. Seven QTLs associated with palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids content are identified on linkage group 14. These common QTLs are linked to HPPD homologue, HuCL04260C001. QTLs controlling various traits such as days from sowing to flowering, plant height, yield and leaf-related traits are also identified under well-, partial-irrigated and late-sowing conditions in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The results do emphasis the importance of the role of linkage group 2, 10 and 13 for studied traits. Genomic regions on the linkage group 9 and 12 are important for QTLs of leaf-related traits in sunflower. We finally identified AFLP markers and some candidate genes linked to seed-quality traits under well-irrigated and water-stressed conditions in gammainduced mutants of sunflower. Two mutant lines, M8-826-2-1 and M8-39-2-1, with significant increased level of oleic acid can be used in breeding programs because of their high oxidative stability and hearthealthy properties. The significant increased level of tocopherol in mutant lines, M8-862-1N1 and M8- 641-2-1, is justified by observed polymorphism for tocopherol pathway-related gene; MCT. The most important marker for total tocopherol content is E33M50_16 which explains 33.9% of phenotypic variance. One of the most important candidate genes involving fatty acid biosynthesis, FAD2 (FAD2-1), is linked to oleic and linoleic acids content and explained more than 52% of phenotypic variance.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
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Institution: Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT
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Research Director:
Sarrafi, Ahmad and Yazdi-Samadi, Bahman
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Deposited On:21 Nov 2012 13:06

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