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Unifying nonholonomic and holonomic behaviors in human locomotion

Truong, Tan Viet Anh. Unifying nonholonomic and holonomic behaviors in human locomotion. PhD, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2010

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Official URL: http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00001315/

Abstract

Our motivation is to understand human locomotion to better control locomotion of virtual systems (robots and mannequins). Human locomotion has been studied so far in different disciplines. We consider locomotion as the level of a body frame (in direction and orientation) instead of the complexity of many kinematic joints systems as other approaches. Our approach concentrates on the computational foundation of human locomotion. The ultimate goal is to find a model that explains the shape of human locomotion in space. To do that, we first base on the behavior of trajectories on the ground during intentional locomotion. When human walk, they put one foot in front of the other and consequently, the direction of motion is deduced by the body orientation. That’s what we called the nonholonomic behavior hypothesis. However, in the case of a sideward step, the body orientation is not coupled to the tangential direction of the trajectory, and the hypothesis is no longer validated. The behavior of locomotion becomes holonomic. The aim of this thesis is to distinguish these two behaviors and to exploit them in neuroscience, robotics and computer animation. The first part of the thesis is to determine the configurations of the holonomic behavior by an experimental protocol and an original analytical tool segmenting the nonholonomic and holonomic behaviors of any trajectory. In the second part, we present a model unifying nonholonomic and holonomic behaviors. This model combines three velocities generating human locomotion: forward, angular and lateral. The experimental data in the first part are used in an inverse optimal control approach to find a multi-objective function which produces calculated trajectories as those of natural human locomotion. The last part is the application that uses the two behaviors to synthesize human locomotion in computer animation. Each locomotion is characterized by three velocities and is therefore considered as a point in 3D control space (of three speeds). We collected a library that contains locomotions at different velocities - points in 3D space. These points are structured in a tetrahedra cloud. When a desired speed is given, it is projected into the 3D space and we find the corresponding tetrahedron that contains it. The new animation is interpolated by four locomotions corresponding to four vertices of the selected tetrahedron. We exhibit several animation scenarios on a virtual character.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
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Institution: Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT
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Research Director:
Laumond, Jean-Paul and Souères, Philippe
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