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Mecanismos de acción de las plantas ricas en taninos sobre la población adulta de nematodos gastrointestinales de los pequeños rumiantes

Martinez-Ortiz-de-Montellano, Cintli. Mecanismos de acción de las plantas ricas en taninos sobre la población adulta de nematodos gastrointestinales de los pequeños rumiantes. PhD, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2010

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Official URL: http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00001490/

Abstract

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) represent a major health problem worldwide in grazing sheep and goat production systems. The control of these parasites has been complicated by the emergence of nematodes which are resistant to the commercially available anthelmintics (AHs). The use of tannin rich plants (TRP), as non-conventional Ahs, represents an alternative for the control of these parasites. However, the mechanism of action of such plants against adult populations of GIN has not been determined. The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect effect of TRP against adult populations of GIN in small ruminants. A direct effect is considered to be any action against the biology, structure and/or ultrastructure of the nematodes which is similar to a chemical AH. The indirect effect is a modification of the immune response of the host at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa which affects the biology of the GIN. This study is divided into two stages: First stage) Two in vivo experiments conducted in Mexico and France respectively, determined the direct and indirect effects on the biology of GIN due to the consumption of the TRP forage of tzalam (Lysiloma latisiliquum), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) as well as a tannin-rich quebracho extract (Schinopsis spp). Lambs were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus (Mexico) or H. contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (France). The consumption of tzalam affected the length and fertility of H. contortus females. Meanwhile, the quebracho extract reduced the population of H. contortus and T. colubriformis also affecting the fecundity of T. colubriformis. The sainfoin affected the fecundity of H. contortus without affecting T. colubriformis. The indirect effect was not evident. Second stage) An in vitro assay and two in vivo experiments with goats infected with H. contortus allowed to identify the effect of the consumption of TRP (tzalam or sainfoin) on the structure and ultrastructure of H. contortus. Alterations in cuticle and cephalic region were found. The aggregates in the vulva were only found in vitro. The ultrastructure of H. contortus showed a vacuolization process in the intestinal and muscular tissues of these nematodes. The lesions suggest that the compounds contained in the foliage of TRP may be involved in vital functions of H. contortus such as mobility, nutrition and possibly reproduction. This study is a contribution towards the understanding the mechanisms of AH action of the TRP against GIN.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
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Institution: Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT
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Research Director:
Hoste, Hervé and Torres Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús
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