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Transfer dynamic of pesticides during storm runoff events in Gascon agricultural watersheds

Taghavi, Lobat. Transfer dynamic of pesticides during storm runoff events in Gascon agricultural watersheds. PhD, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2010

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Official URL: http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00001489/

Abstract

The mechanisms of pesticides transport to stream flow were studied in two agricultural nested catchments of different size in Gascogne region (South West of France): the Save river basin at Larra (1110 km2) and the Montoussé experimental watershed at Auradé (3.28 km2). The intensive agricultural practices used in this region lead to an important risk for water resources by pesticides, especially during storm events. This is why we have paid special attention on storm events when a large quantity of contaminant was transported during hydrological periods. Fourteen molecules of pesticides (herbicides and fungicides) were investigated during the study period. Both of these groups are widely used for agricultural purposed in these catchments. The results achieved over the two years monitoring (2007-2009) enable us to emphasize the principal processes, implied in pesticide transfer on these agricultural catchments. The majority of compounds are detected during storm runoff events. And, the average concentrations of some pesticides are exceeded at the authorization limit of the European Union for pesticide concentrations in drinking water (0.1 µg.L-1 for individual pesticides and 0.5 µg.L-1 for total pesticides). To better understand the mechanisms of pesticide transport hysteresis, patterns on the concentration-discharge relationship (result of different concentration of pesticides in rising and falling limb of storm) were studied. However, clockwise or anticlockwise hysteresis patterns could be observed for some molecules of pesticide and their controlling factors such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and total suspended matters (TSM) according to their transfer dynamic in the catchment. We proceeded with hydrograph separation of the main stormflow components (surface runoff, subsurface flow and groundwater) so that the main pesticide routing could be traced for its soil-river transfers. We also came to the conclusion that there is a positive relationship between riverine TSM, DOC and pesticide, concentrations and the discharges of surface or subsurface runoffs according to pesticide properties. Pesticide flux calculation shows between 60 to 90% of the molecule transport takes place during storm periods. Specific flux calculation also demonstrated the higher flux value in Save catchment than in Aurade with higher pesticide concentration for a given specific discharge. The latter result may be due to the more consumption of pesticide in Save catchment. The analyses of pesticides both in filtered and unfiltered water enabled us to estimate the distribution of pesticides into particulate and dissolved phases. Moreover, the pesticide flux values allow calculating average partition coefficients kd between dissolved and particulate fractions which present good relationship with Kow values (octanol-water) extracted from literature. The percentage of each pesticide transported as particulate forms is also well correlated to Kow.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
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Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT (FRANCE)
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Research Director:
Probst, Jean-Luc and Merlina, Georges
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Deposited On:21 Nov 2012 12:36

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