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Characterization of tomato fruit chromoplasts by proteomic approach

Barsan, Cristina. Characterization of tomato fruit chromoplasts by proteomic approach. PhD, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2010

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Official URL: http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00001432/

Abstract

Fruit ripening is a complex process, mainly regulated by the fruit hormone ethylene, resulting in significant metabolic and physiological changes, having as outcome seed dispersal. The most flagrant change taking place during ripening is the change in color. The organelle responsible for this is the chromoplast, the place of carotenoids accumulation. However this is not its unique role. It was found to be involved in lipid, starch, vitamins and aroma biosynthesis. Due to the fact that most proteins (95%) composing the chromoplast are codified by the nucleus knowledge on gene expression and genome sequences is not useful in the investigation of the functions of chromoplast in the synthesis of the metabolites of interest. High- hroughput proteomics associated with bio-informatics was used to characterize the tomato chromoplast and to reveal its intimate structure. Analysis of the proteome of red fruit chromoplasts revealed the presence of 988 proteins corresponding to 802 Arabidopsis unigenes, among which 209 had not been listed so far in plastidial data banks. These data revealed several features of the chromoplast. Proteins of lipid metabolism and trafficking were well represented, including all the proteins of the lipoxygenase pathway required for the synthesis of lipid-derived aroma volatiles. Proteins involved in starch synthesis co- xisted with several starch-degrading proteins and starch excess proteins. Chromoplasts lacked proteins of the chlorophyll biosynthesis branch and contained proteins involved in chlorophyll degradation. None of the proteins involved in the thylakoid transport machinery were discovered. Surprisingly, chromoplasts contain the entire set of Calvin cycle proteins including Rubisco, as well as the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OxPPP). The analysis of the evolution of the transcriptome of chromoplastic protein-encoding genes was performed. This data confirmed the reduction of the photosynthesis and the maintenance of the Calvin cycle, and of the lipid and starch biosynthesis. Further analysis is performed showing the activity of two important actors in the aroma biosynthesis (lipoxygenase and alcohol dehydrogenase). Several proteins with possible chromoplastic location were coupled with the GFP and expressed in the single cell system. A protocol for isolating tomato fruit chloroplasts and immature chromoplasts was described along with the characterization of the plastidial fractions by confocal microscopy. The transition of the chloroplast to chromoplast is a process that was never described by means of proteomics. This work answers some questions regarding the changes that take place in the organelle, and brings novel information for the understanding of fruit ripening process

Item Type:PhD Thesis
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Institution: Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT
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Research Director:
Pech, Jean-Claude and Brezeanu, Aurelia
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