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Improving energy efficiency of virtualized datacenters

Nitu, Vlad-Tiberiu. Improving energy efficiency of virtualized datacenters. PhD, Réseaux, Télécommunications, Systèmes et Architecture, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2018

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Nowadays, many organizations choose to increasingly implement the cloud computing approach. More specifically, as customers, these organizations are outsourcing the management of their physical infrastructure to data centers (or cloud computing platforms). Energy consumption is a primary concern for datacenter (DC) management. Its cost represents about 80% of the total cost of ownership and it is estimated that in 2020, the US DCs alone will spend about $13 billion on energy bills. Generally, the datacenter servers are manufactured in such a way that they achieve high energy efficiency at high utilizations. Thereby for a low cost per computation all datacenter servers should push the utilization as high as possible. In order to fight the historically low utilization, cloud computing adopted server virtualization. The latter allows a physical server to execute multiple virtual servers (called virtual machines) in an isolated way. With virtualization, the cloud provider can pack (consolidate) the entire set of virtual machines (VMs) on a small set of physical servers and thereby, reduce the number of active servers. Even so, the datacenter servers rarely reach utilizations higher than 50% which means that they operate with sets of longterm unused resources (called 'holes'). My first contribution is a cloud management system that dynamically splits/fusions VMs such that they can better fill the holes. This solution is effective only for elastic applications, i.e. applications that can be executed and reconfigured over an arbitrary number of VMs. However the datacenter resource fragmentation stems from a more fundamental problem. Over time, cloud applications demand more and more memory but the physical servers provide more an more CPU. In nowadays datacenters, the two resources are strongly coupled since they are bounded to a physical sever. My second contribution is a practical way to decouple the CPU-memory tuple that can simply be applied to a commodity server. Thereby, the two resources can vary independently, depending on their demand. My third and my forth contribution show a practical system which exploit the second contribution. The underutilization observed on physical servers is also true for virtual machines. It has been shown that VMs consume only a small fraction of the allocated resources because the cloud customers are not able to correctly estimate the resource amount necessary for their applications. My third contribution is a system that estimates the memory consumption (i.e. the working set size) of a VM, with low overhead and high accuracy. Thereby, we can now consolidate the VMs based on their working set size (not the booked memory). However, the drawback of this approach is the risk of memory starvation. If one or multiple VMs have an sharp increase in memory demand, the physical server may run out of memory. This event is undesirable because the cloud platform is unable to provide the client with the booked memory. My fourth contribution is a system that allows a VM to use remote memory provided by a different rack server. Thereby, in the case of a peak memory demand, my system allows the VM to allocate memory on a remote physical server.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords:
Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT (FRANCE)
Laboratory name:
Research Director:
Hagimont, Daniel and Tchana, Alain-Bouzaïde
Deposited By: Thèse INPT
Deposited On:02 May 2019 15:09

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