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Future Mars geophysical observatories for understanding its internal structure, rotation, and evolution

Dehant, Véronique and Banerdt, William Bruce and Lognonné, Philippe and Grott, Matthias and Asmar, Sami and Biele, Jens and Breuer, Doris and Forget, François and Jaumann, Ralf and Johnson, Catherine L. and Knapmeyer, Martin and Langlais, Benoit and Le Feuvre, Mathieu and Mimoun, David and Mocquet, Antoine and Read, Peter and Rivoldini, Attilio and Romberg, Oliver and Schubert, Gerald and Smrekar, Sue and Spohn, Tilman and Tortora, Paolo and Ulamec, Stephan and Vennerstrøm, Susanne Future Mars geophysical observatories for understanding its internal structure, rotation, and evolution. (2012) Planetary and Space Science, 68 (1). 123-145. ISSN 0032-0633

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2011.10.016

Abstract

Our fundamental understanding of the interior of the Earth comes from seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, geomagnetism, geothermal studies, and petrology. For the Earth, measurements in those disciplines of geophysics have revealed the basic internal layering of the Earth, its dynamical regime, its thermal structure, its gross compositional stratification, as well as significant lateral variations in these quantities. Planetary interiors not only record evidence of conditions of planetary accretion and differentiation, they exert significant control on surface environments. We present recent advances in possible in-situ investigations of the interior of Mars, experiments and strategies that can provide unique and critical information about the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution. Such investigations applied on Mars have been ranked as a high priority in virtually every set of European, US and international high-level planetary science recommendations for the past 30 years. New seismological methods and approaches based on the cross-correlation of seismic noise by two seismic stations/landers on the surface of Mars and on joint seismic/orbiter detection of meteorite impacts, as well as the improvement of the performance of Very Broad-Band (VBB) seismometers have made it possible to secure a rich scientific return with only two simultaneously recording stations. In parallel, use of interferometric methods based on two Earth-Mars radio links simultaneously from landers tracked from Earth has increased the precision of radio science experiments by one order of magnitude. Magnetometer and heat flow measurements will complement seismic and geodetic data in order to obtain the best information on the interior of Mars. In addition to studying the present structure and dynamics of Mars, these measurements will provide important constraints for the astrobiology of Mars by helping to understand why Mars failed to sustain a magnetic field, by helping to understand the planet’s climate evolution, and by providing a limit for the energy available to the chemoautotrophic biosphere through a measurement of the surface heat flow. The landers of the mission will also provide meteorological stations to monitor the climate and obtain new measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer.

Item Type:Article
Audience (journal):International peer-reviewed journal
Uncontrolled Keywords:
Institution:French research institutions > Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS (FRANCE)
Other partners > Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris - IPGP (FRANCE)
Université de Toulouse > Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace - ISAE-SUPAERO (FRANCE)
Other partners > National Aeronautics and Space Administration - NASA (USA)
Other partners > Université de Paris Diderot - Paris 7 (FRANCE)
Other partners > Università di Bologna (ITALY)
Other partners > Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6 - UPMC (FRANCE)
Other partners > Université de La Réunion (FRANCE)
Other partners > California Institute of Technology - Caltech (USA)
Other partners > Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt - DLR (GERMANY)
Other partners > Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris (FRANCE)
Other partners > Ecole Polytechnique (FRANCE)
Other partners > Georges Lemaître Centre for Earth and Climate Research - TECLIM (BELGIUM)
Other partners > Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - INSU (FRANCE)
Other partners > National Space Institute (DENMARK)
Other partners > Royal Observatory of Belgium (BELGIUM)
Other partners > Planetary Science Institute (USA)
Other partners > Technical University of Denmark (DENMARK)
Other partners > Université Nantes Angers Le Mans - UNAM (FRANCE)
Other partners > University of California-Los Angeles - UCLA (USA)
Other partners > Université Catholique de Louvain - UCL (BELGIUM)
Other partners > University of British Columbia (CANADA)
Other partners > University of Oxford (UNITED KINGDOM)
Laboratory name:
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Deposited By: David Mimoun
Deposited On:21 Dec 2016 10:30

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