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Processing Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Signal with a Kalman Filter to Assess Working Memory during Simulated Flight

Durantin, Gautier and Scannella, Sébastien and Gateau, Thibault and Delorme, Arnaud and Dehais, Frédéric Processing Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Signal with a Kalman Filter to Assess Working Memory during Simulated Flight. (2016) International Journal of Psychophysiology. 1-22. ISSN 0167-8760

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00707

Abstract

Working memory is a key executive function for operating aircraft, especially when pilots have to recall series of air traffic control instructions. There is a need to implement tools to monitor working memory as its limitation may jeopardize flight safety. An innovative way to address this issue is to adopt a Neuroergonomics approach that merges knowledge and methods from Human Factors, System Engineering and Neuroscience. A challenge of great importance for Neuroergonomics is to implement efficient brain imaging techniques to measure the brain at work. We used functional near infrared spectroscopy as it has been already successfully tested to measure working memory capacity in complex environment with air traffic controllers, pilots or unmanned vehicle operators. However, the extraction of relevant features from the raw signal in ecological environment is still a critical issue due to the complexity of implementing real-time signal processing techniques without a priori knowledge. We proposed to implement the Kalman filtering approach, a signal processing technique that is efficient when the dynamics of the signal can be modeled. We based our approach on the Boynton model of hemodynamic response. We conducted a first experiment with 9 participants involving a basic working memory task to estimate the noise covariances of the Kalman filter. We then conducted a more ecological experiment in our flight simulator with 18 pilots who interacted with air traffic controller instructions (two levels of difficulty). The data was processed with the same Kalman filter settings implemented in the first experiment. This filter was benchmarked with a classical pass-band IIR filter and a Moving Average Convergence Divergence filter. Statistical analysis revealed that the Kalman filter was the most efficient to separate the two levels of load, by increasing the observed effect size in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex areas. In addition, the use of a Kalman filter increased the performance of the classification of working memory levels based on brain signal. The results suggest that Kalman filter is a suitable approach for real-time improvement of near infrared spectroscopy signal in ecological situations.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:Thanks to Elsevier editor. The definitive version is available at https://www.elsevier.com/ The original PDF of the article can be found at International Journal of Psychophysiology website : http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00707/full
Audience (journal):International journal (no peer-reviewed)
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Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace - ISAE-SUPAERO (FRANCE)
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Funders:
PRES Midi Pyrénées
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Deposited By: Frédéric Dehais
Deposited On:26 Jan 2016 12:54

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