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Bioavailability of metal(loid)s from micro- and nanometric particles in relation with their phytotoxicity

Xiong, Tiantian. Bioavailability of metal(loid)s from micro- and nanometric particles in relation with their phytotoxicity. PhD, Hydrologie, Hydrochimie, Sols, Environnement, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2015

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Abstract

Ultrafine particles including nanosized enriched with metal(loid)s (PM) are emitted into the atmosphere of industrial or urban areas, these PM can transfer into soil and water ecosystems and have consequences on plant quality and human health. In a global socio-scientific context that regulation on (eco)toxicity of chemicals and public space pressures are recently increased, studies of environmental and health impacts throughout the life cycle of PM are of crucial sanitary concern. The PhD aims first to study metal(loid)s present in the PM: their transfer kinetic and mechanism of phytoavailability, phytotoxicity, and human health risks-ingestion bioaccessibility. Then, through the case of vegetable gardens near an incinerator and a highway in China, a socio-scientific study was performed in order to give suggestions for sustainable environmental and health risk management for these sites. Vegetables can significantly accumulate metal(loid)s by foliar uptake when PM directly enter into leaves through stomata apertures. Ultrafine PbO and nano-CuO particles caused serious phytotoxicity (reduced biomass and gaseous exchange, and necrosis) after interaction with leaf surface. Phytotoxicity of metal(loid)s is not simply governed by their total concentration, but also depended on the potential bio-transformation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis clearly evidenced copper speciation change in leaf tissues. Moreover, a significant influence of the nature of metal, plant species and the exposure pathways (foliar/root) on gastro-bioaccessibility of metal(loid)s had been demonstrated. For a social-scientific study near waste incinerator and roadside, we found that atmosphere PM fallouts can induce significant metal foliar uptake in addition to soil-plant transfer. The relatively high human bioaccessibility of metal (60-79%) was measured, suggesting a potential health risk in the case of regular consumption of polluted vegetables. Vegetable gardens present a low (waste incinerator) or moderate (highway) health risk with respect to human consumption quantity of the investigated vegetables, but exposure to different organic pollutants in addition to metals is often possible. Our studies highlight the importance of taking atmosphere and soil quality into account for estimating the quality of consumed plants grown in anthropic areas (farms and kitchen gardens), and for sustainable management of urban agricultures.

Item Type:PhD Thesis
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Institution:Université de Toulouse > Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT (FRANCE)
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Research Director:
Dumat, Camille and Laplanche, Christophe
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Deposited By: Thèse INPT
Deposited On:07 Dec 2015 13:28

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